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LIEBERMAN BOOKS

tppc

By Norman P. Lieberman

PROCESS ENGINEERING FACTS, FICTION AND FABLES

FIRST EDITION PUBLISHED BY: WILEY / SCRIVENER
ISBN 978-1-119-37027-7

CONTENTS

Other Books by Norman Lieberman   xiii
Introduction   xv
Chapter 1. Process Operations & Design
Carl & Clare
3
  Increasing Cooling Water Flow Thru an Elevated Condenser or Cooler
4
 

Hot Vapor By-Pass Pressure Control

7
  Stalling A Thermosyphon Reboilers
10
  Optimizing Fractionator Pressure
13
 

Adjusting Steam Turbine Speed to Minimize Steam Consumption

16
  Steam Condensate Drainage from Reboilers Blowing Condensate Seal
19
  Effect of Reflux on Fractionator Top Temperature
22
 

Centrifugal Pump Head Vs. Flow Performance Curves

25
 

Condensate Back-Up in Condensers – the Effect of Sub-Cooling

27
 

Distillation Tray Downcomer Back-Up and Liquid Flooding 

29
  Effect of Foam on Level Indication in Distillation Towers 
32
  Split Liquid Levels in Vertical Vapor – Liquid Separators 
35
 

Optimizing Excess Air in A Fired Heater to Minimize Fuel Consumption 

37
  Distillation Tray Dumping or Weeping with Valve Cap Tray Decks
41
 

Fired Heater – Tube Failures

44
 

Low Air Flow in A Fin Fan Forced Draft Air Cooler

47
  Measuring Air Flow for a Fin Fan Aerial Cooler
50
  Measuring Cooling Tower Efficiency Approach to Wet Bulb Temperature
53
 

Adjusting Heater Stack Damper for Optimum Energy Efficiency 

56
 

Preventing Tray Dumping by Use of Bubble Cap Trays

59
  Demister Fouling in Vapor-Liquid Separator Vessels 
62
 

Effect of Temperature on Liquid Level Indication

65
  Draw-off Nozzle Capacity Limits 68
  On-Stream Repair of Tube Leaks in Surface Condenser  70
  When are Vortex Breakers Required? 73
  Naphtha Injection to Centrifugal Compressor  76
  Internal Overflow from Total Trap-Out Chimney Tray 80
  Vacuum Ejector – Loose Steam Nozzle 
83
  Effect of Tramp Air Leaks on Heater Efficiency 
86
  Steam Turbine – Surface Condenser Outlet Temperature  92
  Water Accumulation in Turbine Case 96
 
Chapter 2. Crude Distillation
Professor Pot & Kumar  
99
  How to Adjust Pumparound Flows  100
  How Top Reflux Rate Affects Flooding on Top Trays  103
  Desalter – Adjusting Mix Valve Pressure Drop 107
  Causes of Tray Deck Fouling   110
  Minimizing Flash Zone Pressure  113
  How to Adjust Bottoms Stripping Steam Rate 117
  Overhead Condenser Corrosion  120
  On-Line Spalling of Crude Pre-Heat Exchangers  123
  Effect of Reflux on Overhead Accumulator Temperature 127
  Removing Trays from Pre-Flash Towers  130
  Total Trap – Out Chimney Tray  133
  Side Draw-Off Limitations 136
  Packed Towers  139
  Rules of Thumb for Packed Towers  141
  Controlling AGO Draw-Off Rate 143
  Filming Amine Plugs Overhead Vapor Line  146
  Stripping Tray Pressure Drop Profile  150
  Protecting Crude Tower Stripping Trays from Damage Due to Water in Steam  153
 
Chapter 3. Engineering Basics
Irene & Norm 
157
  Draft in Fired Heaters   158
  Turbine Exhaust Surface Condenser Outlet Temperature 162
  Adjusting Steam Turbine to Save Steam 166
  Distillation Tray Downcomer Seal 170
  Bernoulli’s Equation 173
  Properties of Steam 176
  Measuring Flows 179
  Head Loss in Pipelines 182
  Irene Explains Horsepower  185
  Refrigeration 186
  Packed Towers Vs. Trayed Towers  190
  Condensing Steam Turbine Exhaust 194
  Maximizing Lmtd in Heat Exchangers 198
 
Chapter 4. Routine Refinery Operating Problems
Dr. Petry & Pat
203
  Pump Bearings Lubrication  204
  Pressure Measurement Problems in Vapor Lines 207
  Negative Pressure Drops 210
  Coked-Up Thermowells 213
  Centrifugal Compressor Surging  216
  Commissioning Steam Turbine  219
  Refrigeration Systems 222
  Seal Pan Drain Hole  225
  Measuring Steam Flow Without A Steam Meter  228
  Air Leak on Suction of Cooling Water Pump 231
 
Chapter 5. Refinery  Safety
Dangerous Dan & Safety Sally 
235
  Auto Ignition of Hydrocarbon 236
  Failure of Mechanical Pump Seals  239
  Sampling Tar Safely 242
  Dangers of Iron Sulfides  244
  H2S Fatalities  247
  Fired Heater – Positive Pressure 250
  Refinery Explosions & Fires  253
  Flooding Fire Box with Fuel 256
  Routing Relief Valves to the Flare 259
  Isolating Equipment with Gate Valves  262
  Explosive Limit of Hydrogen 265
  Climate Change  268
  Danger of Carbon Steel Piping Spool Pieces  271
  Screwed Connections  274
  Dangers of Steam Deaerators  277
  Connecting Steam Hose to Hydrocarbon System 281
  Process Vessel Collapse Under Vacuum During Start-Up  284
  Acid Gas K.O. Drum   287
  Safety Note 290
 
  Value of a Chemical Engineering Degree to the Process Engineer in a Refinery 291
 
Chapter 6. Pitfalls in Computer Modeling 295
  Basis for Process Engineering Calculations 296
  Underlying Assumptions in Distillation Technology 297
  Tray Fractionation Efficiency  298
  Heat Exchanger Train Performance  299
  Heat Exchanger Pressure Drop 300
  Packed Towers  301
  Air Coolers 302
  Fired Equipment 303
  Piping Systems 304
  Centrifugal Pumps – NPSH   305
  Rotating Equipment 306
  Summary 307
  References 308
 
Chapter 7. Latent Heat Transfer  309
  Propane-Butane Splitter Reboiler 311
  Heat Flux Limitations  312
 
Chapter 8. Hydraulics 315
  Fluids other than Water 317
  Rotational Energy 318
  Pressure Drop Through an Orifice  319
  Effect of Fluid Density on Orifice Pressure Drop 320
  Head Loss in Piping 321
  Factor Affecting Orifice Coefficients 323
  Compressible Fluids 324
 
Chapter 9. Air Coolers  325
  Measuring Air Flow 326
  Air Recirculation 327
  Vane Tip Clearance Problems 329
  Cleaning Tube Bundle 330
  Effect of Fouling on Reverse Air Flow 331
  Effect of Adding Rows of Tubes  332
  Changing Fan Blade Tips & Speed 333
  Slipping Belts 334
  Air Humidification 335
  Induced Draft Fans  336
 
Chapter 10. Extracting Work from Steam  337
  An Isentropic Expansion 338
  Steam Turbines 339
  The Potential Energy of Steam 340
  Condensing  Steam at Low Pressure 342
  The Meaning of Entropy 343
 
  Video Library (list of videos) 345
  The Norm Lieberman Refinery Troubleshooting Seminar on Video (details of program contents) 347
  Index 349

(350 Numbered Pages Including the Index)
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